Roads and Bridges - Drogi i Mosty
22, 3, 2023, 225-241

Sustainable urban mobility and MaaS implementation – selected European and Polish case studies

Agnieszka Łukasiewicz Mail
Road and Bridge Research Institute, 1 Instytutowa St., 03 -302 Warsaw
Marcin Świtała Mail
Road and Bridge Research Institute, 1 Instytutowa St., 03 -302 Warsaw
Ewa Kamińska Mail
Road and Bridge Research Institute, 1 Instytutowa St., 03 -302 Warsaw
Katarzyna Regulska Mail
Częstochowa University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, 3 Akademicka St., 42-201 Częstochowa
Published: 2023-09-30


The aim of the paper is to present the implementation cases of mobility as a service (MaaS) in Finland and Sweden, as well as in Poland. The first part of the article pertains to explain the concept of MaaS and determinants of development in urban transportation, including the complexity of the analysed problem, with particular emphasis on integration of various stakeholders. The second part presents connections between MaaS and the concept and goals of sustainable development. The authors of the paper are convinced that user-oriented and multimodal mobility services may prove an effective alternative (or complement) to private transportation. It may also promote a shift towards sustainable means of transport and more effective use of transportation networks. Therefore, MaaS is perceived as a tool for reducing congestion and negative environmental impacts. The MaaS concept can become a part of a Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan (SUMP). The third part of the article is empirical and presents application of MaaS in sustainable urban mobility based on two European case studies: Helsinki and Stockholm – concerned as the leading cities in terms of MaaS implementation. The last part of the study is devoted to the analysis of the MaaS implementation level in Polish cities.


Mobility as a Service (MaaS), shared mobility, stakeholders, Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan (SUMP)

Full Text:



Standing C., Standing S., Biermann S.: The implications of the sharing economy for transport. Transport Reviews, 39, 2, 2018, 226-242, DOI: 10.1080/01441647.2018.1450307

Crozet Y., Santos G., Coldefy J.: Shared Mobility, MaaS and the Regulatory Challenges of Urban Mobility. Centre on Regulation in Europe (CERRE), Brussels, 2019

Veeneman W.W., Van Kuijk J.I., Hiemstra-van Mastrigt S.: Dreaming of the travelers’ experience in 2040: Exploring governance strategies and their consequences for personal mobility systems, in: Müller B., Meyer G. (eds.): Towards User-Centric Transport in Europe 2. Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2020, 225-239, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-38028-1_16

Casady C.B.: Customer-led mobility: A research agenda for Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) enablement. Case Studies on Transport Policy, 8, 4, 2020, 1451-1457, DOI: 10.1016/j.cstp.2020.10.009

Hietanen S.: ‘Mobility as a service’ – The new transport model? Eurotransport, ITS & Transport Management Supplement, 12, 2, 2014, 2-4

MAAS-Alliance: What is MaaS?, 2021,, 15.08.2022

Kamargianni M., Matyas M., Li W., Muscat J., Yfantis L.: The MaaS Dictionary. MaaSLab, Energy Institute, University College London, London, 2018

Kamargianni M., Li W., Matyas M., Schäfer A.: A critical review of new mobility services for urban transport. Transportation Research Procedia, 14, 2016, 3294-3303, DOI: 10.1016/j.trpro.2016.05.277

Sharp Ch.: White Paper. Guidelines and Recommendations to create the foundations for a thriving MaaS Ecosystem. MaaS Alliance AISBL, Brussels, 2017, DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.16230.11840

Huhtala-Jenks K.: Keys to Digitalising the Transport Sector, MaaS and Transport Code (presentation), Brussels, 2017,, 10.09.2022

Stopka U., Pessier R., Günther C.: Mobility as a Service (MaaS) Based on Intermodal Electronic Platforms in Public Transport, in: Kurosu M. (eds): Human-Computer Interaction. Interaction in Context. HCI 2018, 20th International Conference “HCI International” Proceedings, Las Vegas, July 2018, Lecture Notes in Computer, 10902, 2018, 419-439, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-91244-8_34

Melis A., Mirri S., Prandi C., Prandini M., Salomoni P., Callegati F.: Integrating personalized and accessible itineraries in MaaS ecosystems through microservices. Mobile Networks and Applications, 23, 1, 2018, 167-176, DOI: 10.1007/s11036-017-0831-z

Melis A., Prandini M., Sartori L., Callegati F.: Public transportation, IoT, trust and urban habits, in: Bagnoli F., Satsiou A., Stavrakakis I., Nesi P., Pacini G., Welp Y., Tiropanis T., DiFranzo D. (eds): Internet Science. INSCI, Springer, Cham, 2016, 318-325

Ambrosino G., Nelson J.D., Boero M., Pettinelli I.: Enabling intermodal urban transport through complementary services: From Flexible Mobility Services to the Shared Use Mobility Agency: Workshop 4, Developing inter-modal transport systems. Research in Transportation Economics, 59, 2016, 179-184, DOI: 10.1016/j.retrec.2016.07.015

Giesecke R., Surakka T., Hakonen M.: Conceptualising Mobility as a Service: A user centric view on key issues of mobility services. 11th International Conference on Ecological Vehicles and Renewable Energies (EVER), Monte Carlo, 2016, DOI: 10.1109/EVER.2016.7476443

Hensher D.A.: Future bus transport contracts under a mobility as a service (MaaS) regime in the digital age: Are they likely to change?. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, 98, 2017, 86-96, DOI: 10.1016/j.tra.2017.02.006

ERTICO – ITS Europe: Mobility As a Service (MaaS) and Sustainable Urban Mobility Planning. European Platform on Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans, Brussels, 2019,, 31.01.2023

ELTIS. The SUMP Concept,, 25.09.2022

Wefering F., Rupprecht S., Bührmann S., Böhler-Baedeker S.: Guidelines. Developing and implementing a sustainable urban mobility plan. ELTIS, Brussels, 2014,, 31.01.2023

Statistical Database. Population 1 November by region, age and sex. Year 2002-2022,, 31.01.2023

DBpedia. About: Stockholm urban area,, 31.01.2023

Stockholms Stad. Stockholm Freight Plan,, 31.01.2023

Oliver Wyman Forum. Urban Mobility Readiness Index, Berkeley University of California,, 31.01.2023

Deloitte. The Deloitte City Mobility Index,, 31.01.2023

Stockholm Public Transport,, 31.01.2023

Firth D.: Urban Mobility Strategy. The City of Stockholm Traffic Administration, Stockholm, 2012,, 31.01.2023

Fluidtime. UbiGo: Swedish Mobility-as-a-Service App brings smart mobility,, 31.01.2023

In the Spotlight: MaaS in Stockholm – UITP Summit,, 31.01.2023

Dimitriou D., Sartzetaki M., Roumboutsos A., Polydoropoulou A., Pagoni I., Tsirimpa A., Pichler S., Verma J., Gregory C., Marsilio M., Maciejewski A., Wyrowski Ł., Alexopoulos K.: Transport Trends and Economics 2018-2019. Mobility as a Service. United Nations, Geneva, 2020

Pichler S.: MaaS of the Month: Enabling Smart Mobility in Stockholm. UbiGo – a B2C MaaS solution powered by FluidHub,, 31.01.2023

Kamińska E.: Perspektywy rozwoju modeli mobilności w aspekcie współdzielenia usług MaaS oraz autonomizacji transportu drogowego. Wydawnictwa Komunikacji i Łącz- ności, Warszawa, 2021

Qiao S., Huang G., Yeh A.G.O.: Mobility as a Service and urban infrastructure: From concept to practice. Transactions in Urban Data, Science, and Technology, 1, 1-2, 2022, 16-36, DOI:10.1177/27541231221114171

WHIM – the all-in-one app for mobility,, 29.01.2023

Zawieska J.: Nowe koncepcje mobilności a polskie aglomeracje, w: Gajewski J., Paprocki W., Pieriegud J. (eds.): Mobilność w aglomeracjach przyszłości, Centrum Myśli Strategicznych, Sopot, 2018

Vooom – usprawniamy i przyspieszamy przejazdy w miastach,, 31.01.2023

Regulamin Platformy multimodalnej Vooom wraz z systemem łączenia kont operatorów z dnia 1.12.2020 r.,, 09.09.2022

Koźlak A.: Mobility-as-a Service jako postęp w integracji transportu. Prace Komisji Geografii Komunikacji PTG, 23, 5, 2020, 7-17, DOI: 10.4467/2543859XPKG.20.028.13245

Planuj i jedź z FALĄ. Pomorski transport publiczny w jednym miejscu,, 04.10.2022

Strategia Metropolia Krakowska 2030, Stowarzyszenie Metropolia Krakowska,, 09.09.2022

Świtała M., Łukasiewicz A., Urbański M.: Residents of small towns as users of public transport during Covid-19 - practical recommendations to city managers. Polish Journal of Management Studies, 26, 2, 2022, 365-380, DOI: 10.17512/pjms.2022.26.2.22

Świtała M., Liszewski W.: Typology of city residents’ activity in terms of their mobility. Road and Bridges - Drogi i Mosty, 21, 4, 2022, 343-364, DOI: 10.7409/rabdim.022.020

Łukasiewicz A., Świtała M.: Differences between the traffic model and the actual road traffic and its structure. Road and Bridges - Drogi i Mosty, 19, 1, 2020, 79-91, DOI: 10.7409/rabdim.020.005

Łukasiewicz A.: Interesariusze w przedsięwzięciach infrastruktury drogowej i kolejowej. IBDiM, Seria „S” Studia i Materiały, zeszyt 70, Warszawa, 2012

Sustainable urban mobility and MaaS implementation – selected European and Polish case studies

Łukasiewicz, Agnieszka et al. Sustainable urban mobility and MaaS implementation – selected European and Polish case studies. Roads and Bridges - Drogi i Mosty, [S.l.], v. 22, n. 3, p. 225-241, sep. 2023. ISSN 2449-769X. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 06 Dec. 2023. doi: