Roads and Bridges - Drogi i Mosty
21, 4, 2022, 309-329

Influence of a three-component hydraulic binder on the properties of recycled base course with foamed bitumen and bituminous emulsion: a field investigation

Grzegorz Mazurek Mail
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9735-1725
Kielce University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Department of Transportation Engineering, 7 Tysiąclecia Państwa Polskiego Av., 25-314 Kielce
Przemysław Buczyński Mail
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0798-8093
Kielce University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Department of Transportation Engineering, 7 Tysiąclecia Państwa Polskiego Av., 25-314 Kielce
Marek Iwański Mail
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0414-682X
Kielce University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Department of Transportation Engineering, 7 Tysiąclecia Państwa Polskiego Av., 25-314 Kielce
Renata Horodecka Mail
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5933-5177
Road and Bridge Research Institute, 1 Instytutowa Str., 03-302 Warsaw
Published: 2022-12-30

Abstract

The article presents an investigation of the effect of the type of hydraulic and bituminous binders on the properties of the obtained cold-recycled base course. The cold-recycled mixtures included two types of binder components, i.e. bituminous binder (in the form of foamed bitumen or bituminous emulsion) and hydraulic binder: Portland cement (CEM I 32.5) or a three-component hydraulic binder. The three-component hydraulic binder was produced by mixing basic components in the following proportions: 40% of CEM-I-32.5R cement; 20% of Ca(OH)2 and 40% of CBPD (cement by-pass dust). Cold-recycled mixtures were produced at the test site under industrial conditions. Ready mixtures with bituminous emulsion (EB-RCM) and foamed bitumen (FB-RCM) were sampled from the test sections and compacted in laboratory conditions. The influence of the used technology and binder types was assessed based on physical and mechanical properties, such as: air void content, indirect tensile strength, stiffness modulus at +5°C and +25°C, compressive strength and creep rate. It was observed that usage of the three-component hydraulic binder in the composition of the recycled base course mixture provided increased cohesion and reduced stiffness at +5°C, regardless of the type of bituminous binder technology used. Moreover, the noted decrease in compressive strength of the FB-RCM mixture containing the three-component hydraulic binder did not result in an increased creep rate. Monitoring of environmental factors indicated that the recycled mixtures maintained stable moisture content.

Keywords


bituminous emulsion, cold-recycled mixture, contrast analysis, foamed bitumen, hydraulic road binder.

Full Text:

PDF PDF

References


Jenkins K.J.: Mix Design Considerations for Cold and Half-Warm Bituminous Mixes with Emphasis on Foamed Bitumen. PhD Dissertation, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Stellenbosch: Stellenbosch, South Africa, 2000

Chomicz-Kowalska A., Maciejewski K.: Performance and Viscoelastic Assessment of High-Recycle Rate Cold Foamed Bitumen Mixtures Produced with Different Penetration Binders for Rehabilitation of Deteriorated Pavements. Journal of Cleaner Production, 258, 2020, ID article 120517, DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.120517

Mallick R.B., Hendrix G.: Use of Foamed Asphalt in Recycling Incinerator Ash for Construction of Stabilized Base Course. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 42, 2004, 239-248, DOI: 10.1016/j.resconrec.2004.04.007

Iwański M.M.: Synergistic Effect of F-T Synthetic Wax and Surface-Active Agent Content on the Properties and Foaming Characteristics of Bitumen 50/70. Materials, 14, 2021, 300, DOI:10.3390/ma14020300

Czapik P., Zapała-Sławeta J., Owsiak Z., Stępień P.: Hydration of Cement By-Pass Dust. Construction and Building Materials, 231, 2020, ID article 117139, DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.117139

Dołżycki B.: Polish Experience with Cold In-Place Recycling. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 236, 2017, ID article 012089, DOI: 10.1088/1757-899X/236/1/012089

Skotnicki L., Kuźniewski J., Szydlo A.: Stiffness Identification of Foamed Asphalt Mixtures with Cement, Evaluated in Laboratory and In Situ in Road Pavements. Materials, 13, 5, 2020, 1128, DOI: 10.3390/ma13051128

Iwański M., Mazurek G., Buczyński P.: Bitumen Foaming Optimisation Process on the Basis of Rheological Properties. Materials, 11, 10, 2018, 1854, DOI: 10.3390/ma11101854

Niazi Y., Jalili M.: Effect of Portland Cement and Lime Additives on Properties of Cold In-Place Recycled Mixtures with Asphalt Emulsion. Construction and Building Materials, 23, 3, 2009, 1338-1343, DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2008.07.020

Kukiełka J., Bańkowski W.: The Experimental Study of Mineral-Cement-Emulsion Mixtures with Rubber Powder Addition. Construction and Building Materials, 226, 2019, 759-766, DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.07.276

Buczyński P.: Rehabilitation Reliability of the Road Pavement Structure with Recycled Base Course with Foamed Bitumen. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 356, 2018, ID article 012016, DOI: 10.1088/1757-899X/356/1/012016

Iwański M., Chomicz-Kowalska A.: Evaluation of the Pavement Performance. Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences, 63, 1, 2015, 97-105, DOI: 10.1515/bpasts-2015-0011

Bocci M., Grilli A., Cardone F., Ferrotti G.: Full-Depth Reclamation for the Rehabilitation of Local Roads: A Case Study. International Journal of Pavement Engineering, 15, 3, 2014, 191-201, DOI: 10.1080/10298436.2012.657196

Dal Ben M., Jenkins K.J.: Performance of Cold Recycling Materials with Foamed Bitumen and Increasing Percentage of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement. Road Materials and Pavement Design, 15, 2, 2014, 348-371, DOI: 10.1080/14680629.2013.872051

Bocci E., Graziani A., Bocci M.: Cold In-Place Recycling for a Base Layer of an Italian High-Traffic Highway, in: Pasetto M., Partl M.N., Tebaldi G. (eds.): Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Asphalt Pavements & Environment (APE) Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2020, 313-322, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-29779-4_31

Berthelot C., Gerbrandt R.: Cold In-Place Recycling and Full-Depth Strengthening of Clay-Till Subgrade Soils Results with Cementitious Waste Products in Northern Climates. Transportation Research Record, 1787, 1, 2002, 3-12, DOI: 10.3141/1787-01

Buczyński P., Iwański M.: Complex Modulus Change within the Linear Viscoelastic Region of the Mineral-Cement Mixture with Foamed Bitumen. Construction and Building Materials, 172, 2018, 52-62, DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.03.214

Buczyński P., Iwański M.: Characteristics of the Complex Modulus of Recycled Cold Mix with Foamed Bitumen and Recycled Concrete Aggregate. MATEC Web of Conferences, 262, 2019, 05002, DOI: 10.1051/matecconf/201926205002

Wirtgen Cold Recycling Technology, Wirtgen, Windhagen, 2012

Judycki J., Jaskuła P., Pszczoła M., Alenowicz J., Dołżycki B., Jaczewski M., Ryś D., Stienss M.: Katalog typowych konstrukcji nawierzchni podatnych i półsztywnych, GDDKiA, Warszawa, 2014

Raport z Projektu Badawczego – Nowoczesne Technologie Materiałowe TECHMATSTRATEG I „Innowacyjna technologia wykorzystująca optymalizację środka wiążącego przeznaczonego do recyklingu głębokiego na zimno konstrukcji nawierzchni zapewniająca jej trwałość eksploatacyjną” / “An innovative technology using binding agent optimization that provides long service life of recycled base courses”, (TECHMATSTRATEG1/349326/9/NCBR/2017), Politechnika Świętokrzyska, Kielce, 2017-2020

Iwański M., Chomicz-Kowalska A., Buczyński P., Mazurek G., Cholewińska M., Iwański M.M., Ramiączek P., Maciejewski K.: Procedury projektowania oraz wytyczne stosowania materiałów odpadowych i z recyklingu do technologii wytwarzania mieszanek metodą na zimno z asfaltem spienionym (MCAS), Politechnika Świętokrzyska, Kielce, 2018

Dołżycki B.: Instrukcja projektowania i wbudowania mieszanek mineralno-cementowo-emulsyjnych (MCE), 2019

Iwański M., Chomicz-Kowalska A.: Application of the Foamed Bitumen and Bitumen Emulsion to the Road Base Mixes in the Deep Cold Recycling Technology. The Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering, 11, 4, 2016, 291-301, DOI: 10.3846/bjrbe.2016.34

Iwański M.: Podbudowa z asfaltem spienionym. Drogownictwo, 59, 3, 2006, 97-106

Iwański M., Chomicz-Kowalska A.: Właściwości recyklowanej podbudowy z asfaltem spienionym. Drogownictwo, 64, 9, 2011, 271-277

Iwański M., Chomicz-Kowalska A.: Laboratory Study on Mechanical Parameters of Foamed Bitumen Mixtures in the Cold Recycling Technology. Procedia Engineering, 57, 2013, 433-442, DOI: 10.1016/j.proeng.2013.04.056

Iwański M., Chomicz-Kowalska A., Mazurek G., Buczyński P., Cholewińska M., Iwański M.M., Maciejewski K., Ramiączek P.: Effects of the Water-Based Foaming Process on the Basic and Rheological Properties of Bitumen 70/100. Materials, 14, 2021, 2803, DOI: 10.3390/ma14112803

Mazurek G., Iwański M.: Optimisation of the Innovative Hydraulic Binder Composition for Its Versatile Use in Recycled Road Base Layer. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 603, 3, 2019, 032044, DOI: 10.1088/1757-899X/603/3/032044

Dołżycki B.: Spękania nawierzchni z podbudową mieszanki mineralno-cementowo-emulsyjnej na przykładzie Drogi Krajowej nr 7. Drogownictwo, 62, 12, 2009, 411-417

Baghini M.S., Ismail A., Bin Karim M.R.: Evaluation of Cement-Treated Mixtures with Slow Setting Bitumen Emulsion as Base Course Material for Road Pavements. Construction and Building Materials, 94, 2015, 323-336, DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.07.057

Kavussi A., Modarres A.: Laboratory Fatigue Models for Recycled Mixes with Bitumen Emulsion and Cement. Construction and Building Materials, 24, 10, 2010, 1920-1927, DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2010.04.009

Mazurek G., Buczyński P., Iwański M., Podsiadło M.: Thermal Analysis-Based Field Validation of the Deformation of a Recycled Base Course Made with Innovative Road Binder. Materials 14, 20, 2021, 5925, DOI: 10.3390/ma14205925

Lesueur D., Petit J., Ritter H.J.: The Mechanisms of Hydrated Lime Modification of Asphalt Mixtures: A State-of-the-Art Review. Road Materials and Pavement Design, 14, 2013, 1-16, DOI: 10.1080/14680629.2012.743669

Iwański M.M.: Effect of Hydrated Lime on Indirect Tensile Stiffness Modulus of Asphalt Concrete Produced in Half-Warm Mix Technology. Materials, 13, 2020, 4731, DOI:10.3390/ma13214731

Stroup-Gardinder M., Epps J.A.: Four Variables That Affect the Performance of Lime in Asphalt Aggregate Mixtures. Transportation Research Record, 1987, 12-22, http://onlinepubs.trb.org/Onlinepubs/trr/1987/1115/1115-002.pdf (22.12.2022)

PN-EN 13282-2:2015-06 Hydrauliczne spoiwa drogowe – Część 2: Hydrauliczne spoiwa drogowe normalnie wiążące – Skład, wymagania i kryteria zgodności

PN-EN 13808:2013 Bitumen and Bituminous Binders – Framework for Specifying Cationic Bituminous Emulsions

Iwański M.; Mazurek G.; Buczyński P.: Optymalizacja składu środka wiążącego o uniwersalnym charakterze zastosowania w recyklowanych podbudowach. Raport częścioiwy z Projektu Badawczego TECHMATSTRATEG I, Politechnika Świętokrzyska, Kielce, 2019

PN-EN 12697-1:2020-08 Bituminous Mixtures – Test Methods for Hot Mix Asphalt – Part 1: Soluble Binder Content

PN-EN 12697-31:2019-03 Bituminous Mixtures – Test Methods for Hot Mix Asphalt – Part 31: Specimen Preparation Gyratory Compactor

EN 12697-30:2018 Bituminous Mixtures – Test Methods – Part 30: Specimen Preparation by Impact Compactor

PN-EN 12697-23:2017 Bituminous Mixtures – Test Methods – Part 23: Determination of the Indirect Tensile Strength of Bituminous Specimens

PN-EN 12697-26:2018 Bituminous Mixtures – Test Methods – Part 26: Stiffness

PN-EN 13286-41:2021 Unbound and Hydraulically Bound Mixtures – Part 41: Test Method for Determination of the Compressive Strength of Hydraulically Bound Mixtures

PN-EN 12697-25:2016 Bituminous Mixtures – Test Methods – Part 25: Cyclic Compression Test

PN-EN 13108-20:2008 Mieszanki mineralno-asfaltowe – Wymagania – Część 20: Badanie Typu

Tanyu B.F., Ullah S., Akmaz E.: Optimizing Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) Content in Unbound Base Aggregate. Virginia Transportation Research Council, Technical Report, 2021, DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.10713.85605

Montgomery D.C.: Design and Analysis of Experiments. Eighth edition, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, 2013


Influence of a three-component hydraulic binder on the properties of recycled base course with foamed bitumen and bituminous emulsion: a field investigation

  
Mazurek, Grzegorz et al. Influence of a three-component hydraulic binder on the properties of recycled base course with foamed bitumen and bituminous emulsion: a field investigation. Roads and Bridges - Drogi i Mosty, [S.l.], v. 21, n. 4, p. 309-329, dec. 2022. ISSN 2449-769X. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 02 Feb. 2023. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.7409/rabdim.022.018.