Published: 2023-06-30

Skid resistance of road markings: literature review and field test results

Tomasz E. Burghardt , Birgit Köck , Anton Pashkevich , Alexander Fasching


Skid resistance of road markings belongs to their important performance parameters, significantly influencing the safety of all road users, particularly when the roadway is wet – yet it is very seldom addressed. A review of the sparse literature on this topic is provided herein. To demonstrate the effect of the selection of anti-skid particles on Pendulum Test Value (PTV) of road markings, a field experiment was done with five drop-on materials. Whereas PTV of the asphalt road surface was 49, covering it with a paint without any glass beads or anti-skid particles caused PTV decrease to 35; utilisation of glass beads led to an increase in PTV to 45 and the use of a mixture of glass beads with 10% of corundum provided PTV 50. The achieved initial PTV and its retention upon the usage of road markings depended on the selection of the anti-skid particles. The initial PTV were in the range of 45–65, after 10 months they decreased to 41-49 (i.e. by 6-32%). The results confirm that not all anti-skid particles are equal and that the initial PTV cannot be used to reliably predict long-term performance.


anti-skid particles, corundum, glass beads, glass granulate, road safety, toxic elements, waterborne paint.

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Burghardt, T. E., Köck, B., Pashkevich, A., & Fasching, A. (2023). Skid resistance of road markings: literature review and field test results. Roads and Bridges - Drogi I Mosty, 22(2), 141–165.

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