Roads and Bridges - Drogi i Mosty
22, 2, 2023, 141-165

Skid resistance of road markings: literature review and field test results

Tomasz E. Burghardt Mail
M. Swarovski Gesellschaft m.b.H., Wipark, 14. Straße 11, 3363 Neufurth, Austria
Birgit Köck Mail
M. Swarovski Gesellschaft m.b.H., Wipark, 14. Straße 11, 3363 Neufurth, Austria
Anton Pashkevich Mail
Cracow University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Chair of Transportation Systems, 24 Warszawska St., 31-155 Cracow, Poland
Alexander Fasching Mail
M. Swarovski Gesellschaft m.b.H., Wipark, 14. Straße 11, 3363 Neufurth, Austria
Published: 2023-06-30


Skid resistance of road markings belongs to their important performance parameters, significantly influencing the safety of all road users, particularly when the roadway is wet – yet it is very seldom addressed. A review of the sparse literature on this topic is provided herein. To demonstrate the effect of the selection of anti-skid particles on Pendulum Test Value (PTV) of road markings, a field experiment was done with five drop-on materials. Whereas PTV of the asphalt road surface was 49, covering it with a paint without any glass beads or anti-skid particles caused PTV decrease to 35; utilisation of glass beads led to an increase in PTV to 45 and the use of a mixture of glass beads with 10% of corundum provided PTV 50. The achieved initial PTV and its retention upon the usage of road markings depended on the selection of the anti-skid particles. The initial PTV were in the range of 45–65, after 10 months they decreased to 41-49 (i.e. by 6-32%). The results confirm that not all anti-skid particles are equal and that the initial PTV cannot be used to reliably predict long-term performance.


anti-skid particles, corundum, glass beads, glass granulate, road safety, toxic elements, waterborne paint.

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Skid resistance of road markings: literature review and field test results

Burghardt, Tomasz E. et al. Skid resistance of road markings: literature review and field test results. Roads and Bridges - Drogi i Mosty, [S.l.], v. 22, n. 2, p. 141-165, jun. 2023. ISSN 2449-769X. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 02 Oct. 2023. doi: