Roads and Bridges - Drogi i Mosty
20, 3, 2021, 325-340

Rehabilitation needs assessment of flexible pavements based on cracking and rutting distress

Ripunjoy Gogoi Mail
Amity University Madhya Pradesh, Amity School of Engineering and Technology, Department of Civil Engineering, Gwalior City 474005, India
Bhupali Dutta Mail
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Department of Civil Engineering, Kanpur 208016, India
Published: 2021-09-30


The present study is an attempt to investigate the flexible pavement condition based on cracking and rutting distress which are modes of structural failures. The objective is to identify the structural condition of the pavement and to verify whether the pavement requires any structural treatments such as repairs or rehabilitation. The study departs from the approach of a single summary indicator of pavement condition, namely the serviceability index, where different types of functional and structural distresses are considered simultaneously in rehabilitation decision-making. The proposed decision-making system is formulated based on the fuzzy logic theory. The system takes into account different severity levels of cracking and rutting to identify the critically distressed pavement sections. The root mean square error (RMSE) and the mean absolute error (MAE) values of 2.242 and 1.541, respectively, show that the results obtained from the present decision-making model are reasonably accurate.


cracking, flexible pavement, fuzzy logic, pave-ment condition index, rehabilitation, rutting, serviceability index.

Full Text:



AASHTO Guide for design of pavement structures. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, D.C., 1993

ASTM D6433-18 Standard Practice for Roads and Parking Lots Pavement Condition Index Surveys. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, 2018, DOI: 10.1520/D6433-18

ASTM E1926-08 Standard practice for computing international roughness index of roads from longitudinal profile measurements. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, 2015, DOI: 10.1520/E1926-08R15

IRC SP-16 Guidelines on measuring road roughness and norms, 2nd Revision. Indian Roads Congress, New Delhi, 2019

Maintenance guidebook for road pavements. Japan Road Association, Tokyo, 2017

Abaza K.A.: Optimum flexible pavement life-cycle analysis model. Journal of Transportation Engineering, 128, 6, 2002, 542-549, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-947X(2002)128:6(542)

Fwa T.F., Sinha K.C.: Pavement performance and life-cycle cost analysis. Journal of Transportation Engineering, 117, 1, 1991, 33-46, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-947X(1991)117:1(33)

NCHRP Report No. 1-37A, Guide for mechanistic-empirical design of new and rehabilitated flexible pavement structures. Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C, 2004

France-Mensah J., O’Brien W.J.: Budget allocation models for pavement maintenance and rehabilitation: Comparative case study. Journal of Management in Engineering, 34, 2, 2018, 05018002, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)ME.1943-5479.0000599

Gao L., Xie C., Zhang Z., Waller S.T.: Network level road pavement maintenance and rehabilitation scheduling for optimal performance improvement and budget utilization. Computer Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering, 27, 4, 2012, 278-287, DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8667.2011.00733.x

Pavement design manual. Arizona Department of Transportation, Roadway Engineering Group, Pavement Design Section, Phoenix, 2017

Huang Y.H.: Pavement analysis and design, 2nd Edition. Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, 2008

Haas R., Hudson W.R.: Pavement asset management. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, 2015

Pavement design manual. Georgia Department of Transportation, Atlanta, 2005

Li Y., Madanat S.: A steady-state solution for the optimal pavement resurfacing problem. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 36, 6, 2002, 525-535, DOI: 10.1016/S0965-8564(01)00020-9

Gogoi R.: Optimal rehabilitation strategy for asphalt pavements, Thesis (Ph.D.). Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, 2018

Ross T.J.: Fuzzy logic with engineering applications, 3rd Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, 2011

Sun L., Gu W.: Pavement condition assessment using fuzzy logic theory and analytic hierarchy process. Journal of Transportation Engineering, 137, 9, 2011, 648-655, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)TE.1943-5436.0000239

Gogoi R., Dutta B.: Maintenance prioritization of interlocking concrete block pavement using fuzzy logic. International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology, 13, 2, 2020, 168-175, DOI: 10.1007/s42947-019-0098-9

Federal Highway Administration: Long Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) program, data retrieved from LTPP InfoPave,, 2019

Shahin M.Y., Kohn S.D.: Airfield Pavement Performance Prediction and Determination of Rehabilitation Needs, 5th International Conference on the Design of Asphalt Pavements, ISAP, Delft, 1982, 05044

Ibraheem A.T.: Modeling the methods of flexible pavements maintenance. Journal of Transportation Engineering, 140, 3, 2014, 04013014, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)TE.1943-5436.0000479

Wang L.X., Mendel J.M.: Generating fuzzy rules by learning from examples. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, 22, 6, 1992, 1414-1427, DOI: 10.1109/21.199466

Guillaume S., Charnomordic B., Lablée J.L.: FisPro: An open source portable software for fuzzy inference systems, 2021, inline.pdf (20.08.2021)

Chiu S.L.: Fuzzy model identification based on cluster estimation. Journal of Intelligent & fuzzy systems, 2, 3, 1994, 267-278, DOI: 10.3233/IFS-1994-2306

1. Author 1

  Author 1
View (1MB)

2. Author 2

  Author 2
View (299KB)

3. Figure 1

  Figure 1
View (30KB)

4. Figure 2

  Figure 2
View (34KB)

5. Figure 3

  Figure 3
View (36KB)

6. Figure 4

  Figure 4
View (12KB)

7. Figure 5

  Figure 5
View (14KB)

8. Figure 6

  Figure 6
View (13KB)

9. Figure 7

  Figure 7
View (14KB)

10. Figure 8

  Figure 8
View (14KB)

11. Figure 9

  Figure 9
View (14KB)

12. Figure 10

  Figure 10
View (629KB)

13. Figure 11

  Figure 11
View (171KB)

14. Figure 12

  Figure 12
View (25KB)

15. Figure 13

  Figure 13
View (17KB)

16. Figure 14

  Figure 14
View (45KB)

17. Figure 15

  Figure 15
View (181KB)

Rehabilitation needs assessment of flexible pavements based on cracking and rutting distress

Gogoi, Ripunjoy; Dutta, Bhupali. Rehabilitation needs assessment of flexible pavements based on cracking and rutting distress. Roads and Bridges - Drogi i Mosty, [S.l.], v. 20, n. 3, p. 325-340, sep. 2021. ISSN 2449-769X. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 25 Oct. 2021. doi: