Roads and Bridges - Drogi i Mosty
21, 1, 2022, 19-37

Fatigue load effects on highway bridges of Pakistan using Weigh-In-Motion data

Muhammad Adeel Arshad Mail
University of Engineering and Technology, Peshawar, Department of Civil Engineering, Jamrud Road Peshawar 25000, Pakistan
Muhammad Fahad Mail
University of Engineering and Technology, Department of Civil Engineering, Peshawar, Pakistan
Akhtar Naeem Khan Mail
University of Engineering and Technology, Department of Civil Engineering, Peshawar, Pakistan
Mohammad Adil Mail
University of Engineering and Technology, Department of Civil Engineering, Peshawar, Pakistan
Arsalaan Khan Mail
University of Engineering and Technology, Department of Civil Engineering, Peshawar, Pakistan
Published: 2022-03-31

Abstract

Bridges are considered to be the essential structures and represent a vital part of a transportation network. Their safe operation with minimal maintenance closures is paramount for their efficient operation. The continuous increase in volume and weight of truck traffic directly translates into a higher number of accumulated fatigue load cycles. This study utilizes truck traffic data from a Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) station located on Pakistan’s busiest and longest National Highway. An algorithm was developed to simulate vehicle passages over simple analytical bridge models of various span lengths to compute fatigue cycles at critical locations. This was followed by a case study on a reinforced concrete T-beam bridge located under the influence of the selected WIM station to obtain a fatigue stress spectrum for its critical details. This information provides an identification tool for bridges within a stock that are more susceptible to fatigue problems and could form part of a full-bridge management framework.

Keywords


fatigue behaviour, gross vehicular weights, highway bridges, stress range, weigh in motion.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Donghuang Y., Yuan L., Ming Y., Naiwei L.: Lifetime Fatigue Reliability Evaluation of Short to Medium Span Bridges under Site-specific Stochastic Truck Loading. Advances in Mechanical Engineering, 9, 3, 2017, DOI: 10.1177/1687814017695047

News Desk. Has Pakistani Government stopped implementing Axel Load Limit Law? Global Village Space, https://www.globalvillagespace.com/has-pakistani-government-stopped-implementing-axel-load-limit-law/

Schijve J.: Fatigue of Structures and Materials in the 20th Century and the State of the Art. International Journal of Fatigue, 25, 8, 2003, DOI: 10.1016/S0142-1123(03)00051-3

Arshad M.A.: A Comparative Study of Live Loads for the Design of Highway Bridges in Pakistan. International Journal of Bridge Engineering, 4, 3, 2016, 49-60

Shahid S., Ahmad I., Arshad M.A.: An Assessment of Vehicular Live Loads for Bridge Design in Pakistan. International Journal of Bridge Engineering, 6, 1, 2018, 9-22

National Highways Safety Ordinance. Government of Pakistan, 2000, http://pakistancode.gov.pk/pdffiles/administrator79f454ff038827bacaf1758984d449f7.pdf (11.02.2022)

NTRC Axle Load Survey on National Highway & Motorway Network of Pakistan (NTRC-334). Ministry of Communications, Government of Pakistan, 2020, http://www.ntrc.gov.pk/ntrc_studies/NTRCAXLELOADSURVEYONNATIONALHIGHWAYMOTORWAYNETWORKOFPAKISTAN(NTRC-334)DEC2020.pdf (11.02.2022)

Khan S.U., Ayub T., Qadir A.: Effect of Overloaded Vehicles on the Performance of Highway Bridge Girder: A Case Study. Procedia Engineering, 77, 2014, 95-105, DOI: 10.1016/j.proeng.2014.07.010

Shoaib S., Qureshi L.A., Fahad M.: Development of Live Load Calibration Factor for State Highway Bridge Design of Pakistan. International Journal of Advanced Structures and Geotechnical Engineering, 4, 3, 2015, 165-172

UN.ESCAP: Strengthening the Capacity of ESCAP Member States to Harmonize Standards on Weights, Dimensions and Emmissions of Road Vehicles for Facilitation of Transport along the Asian Highway Network. Study Report, 2019, https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12870/285

Maddah N.: Fatigue Life Assessment of Roadway Bridges based on Actual Traffic Loads. PhD thesis, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Switzerland, 2013, DOI: 10.5075/epfl-thesis-5575

Howard, Needles, Tammen & Bergendoff Int. Inc: Code of Practice Highway Bridges, Government of West Pakistan Highway Department, Lahore, 1967

AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. 7th edition, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, 2014

Brühwiler E.: Rational Approach for the Management of a Medium Size Bridge Stock. IABMAS’08: 4th International Conference on Bridge Maintenance, Safety and Management, Seoul, 2008

Treacy M., Brühwiler E.: Fatigue Loading Estimation for Road Bridges Using Long Term Wim Monitoring. In: Advances in Safety, Reliability and Risk Management, Taylor & Francis Group, London, 2012

Ye X.W., Su Y.H., Han J.P.: A State-of-the-Art Review on Fatigue Life Assessment of Steel Bridges. Mathematical Problems in Engineering, 2014, 956473, DOI: 10.1155/2014/956473

Yu Y., Cai C., Deng L.: State-of-the-Art Review on Bridge Weigh-in-Motion Technology. Advances in Structural Engineering, 19, 9, 2016, 1514-1530, DOI: 10.1177/1369433216655922

Maljaars J.: Evaluation of Traffic Load Models for Fatigue Verification of European Road Bridges. Engineering Structures, 225, 2020, 111326, DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2020.111326

Carneiro A.L., Portela E., Bittencourt T.N.: Development of Brazilian Highway Live Load Model for Unlimited Fatigue Life. Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais, 13, 4, 2020, DOI: 10.1590/s1983-41952020000400007

Laman J.A., Nowak A.S.: Fatigue Load Models for Girder Bridges. Journal of Structural Engineering, 122, 7, 1996, 726-733, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(1996)122:7(726)

Wang C., Zhai M., Zhang P., Duan L., Chen X.: Fatigue safety monitoring and assessment of short and medium span concrete girder bridges. International Conference on Performance-based and Life-cycle Structural Engineering, Brisbane, 2015, DOI: 10.14264/uql.2016.928

Jacob B., Labry D.: Evaluation of the Effects of Heavy Vehicles on Bridges Fatigue. 7th International Symposium on Heavy Vehicle Weights & Dimensions, Delft, 2002

Zhuang H., Zhang J., Jiang R.: Fatigue Flexural Performance of Short-Span Reinforced Concrete T-Beams Considering Overloading Effect. Baltic Journal of Road & Bridge Engineering, 15, 2, 2020, 89-110, DOI: 10.7250/bjrbe.2020-15.474

Yan D., Luo Y., Yuan M., Lu N.: Lifetime fatigue reliability evaluation of short to medium span bridges under site-specific stochastic truck loading. Advances in Mechanical Engineering, 9, 3, 2017, DOI:10.1177/1687814017695047

Wang T.L., Liu C., Huang D., Shahawy M.: Truck Loading and Fatigue Damage Analysis for Girder Bridges based on Weigh-in-Motion Data. Journal of Bridge Engineering, 10, 1, 2005, 12-20, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)1084-0702(2005)10:1(12)

Moses F., Schilling C.G., Raju K.S.: Commentary on New Fatigue Design and Evaluation Procedures. NCHRP Project 12-28(3), 1987

Downing D., Socie D.F.: Simple Rainflow Counting Algorithms. International Journal of Fatigue, 4, 1, 1982, 31-40, DOI: 10.1016/0142-1123(82)90018-4

ACI Committee 215: Considerations for Design of Concrete Structures Subjected to Fatigue Loading (ACI 215R-92), American Concrete Institute, Detroit, 1992

Miner M.A.: Cumulative Damage in Fatigue. Journal of Applied Mechanics, 12, 3, 1945, 159-164, DOI: 10.1115/1.4009458


Fatigue load effects on highway bridges of Pakistan using Weigh-In-Motion data

  
Arshad, Muhammad Adeel et al. Fatigue load effects on highway bridges of Pakistan using Weigh-In-Motion data. Roads and Bridges - Drogi i Mosty, [S.l.], v. 21, n. 1, p. 19-37, mar. 2022. ISSN 2449-769X. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 03 Dec. 2022. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.7409/rabdim.022.002.