Roads and Bridges - Drogi i Mosty
19, 1, 2020, 51-64

Effect of various de-icers containing chloride ions on scaling resistance and chloride penetration depth of highway concrete

Pavel Reiterman Mail
Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Thakurova 7, 166 29, Prague, Czech Republic
Martin Keppert Mail
Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Thakurova 7, 166 29, Prague, Czech Republic
Published: 2020-03-31


The use of chloride-based de-icers belongs to the most common road winter maintenance measures applied to prevent dangerous driving conditions. Chloride-based de-icers are the most frequently used worldwide. The essential difficulty with de-icers is their detrimental effect on concrete, other components of the road infrastructure and on vehicles. The interaction of various individual chloride salts with concrete is described in the paper; the experimental programme was focused on evaluation of the most frequently applied chloride-based de-icers in terms of damage to the air-entrained concrete used for highway construction. Three individual salts – NaCl, CaCl2, MgCl2 – and one blend (NaCl + CaCl2) were used. Their effect on concrete was investigated in terms of surface scaling during freezing-thawing cycles, residual mechanical properties and final ingress of chloride ions. Calcium chloride exhibited the most detrimental effect on the studied concrete.


chloride-based de-icers, chloride ingress, freezing-thawing, residual mechanical properties, wetting-drying cycles.

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Effect of various de-icers containing chloride ions on scaling resistance and chloride penetration depth of highway concrete

Reiterman, Pavel; Keppert, Martin. Effect of various de-icers containing chloride ions on scaling resistance and chloride penetration depth of highway concrete. Roads and Bridges - Drogi i Mosty, [S.l.], v. 19, n. 1, p. 51-64, mar. 2020. ISSN 2449-769X. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 27 May. 2020. doi: